195 nations seal historic Paris pact to stop global warming..

To rousing cheers and tears of relief, envoys from 195 nations approved Saturday an accord to stop global warming, offering hope that humanity can avert catastrophic climate change and usher in an energy revolution.

In the COP 21(Conference of the Parties)- Paris climate conference held from November 30 to December 11, 2015, “The Paris agreement” to combat climate change and take actions towards a low carbon, sustainable future was agreed by 195 nations. Following the adoption of the Paris Agreement by the COP, it will be opened for one year for signature on 22 April 2016--Mother Earth Day. The agreement will enter into force after 55 countries that account for at least 55% of global emissions have deposited their instruments of ratification. The agreement is the global climate framework for the post-2020 world. It will replace the existing Kyoto Protocol which will continue till that time.



Key features of Paris agreement are-

  • Agreement calls for holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C
  • An overall assessment of how countries are doing in cutting their emissions compared to their national plans – starting in 2023, every five years. Climate action will also be taken forward in the period before 2020
  • By some point after 2050, man-made emissions should be reduced to a level that forests and oceans can absorb. Thus a carbon-neutral world is aimed at after 2050 but before 2100.
  • Parties to peak greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible and achieve a balance between sources and sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century
  • The deal requires countries to monitor, verify and report their greenhouse gas emissions
  • Only developed countries are expected to slash their emissions in absolute terms; developing nations are "encouraged" to do so as their capabilities evolve over time.
  • The deal also calls on developed nations to give $100 billion annually to developing countries by 2020.


In order to reach the long-term goal, countries agreed to set national targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions every five years. More than 180 countries have already submitted targets for the first cycle beginning in 2020. India has submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Main points of India INDC are -

  • To reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 33 to 35 per cent by 2030 from 2005 level
  • To achieve about 40 per cent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030, 
  • To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tones of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.