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Biological diversity or biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life on earth. Biodiversity is expressed at three levels on earth; genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. Its direct and indirect services are crucial for the sustenance of life on this planet.
Biodiversity ensure food, fuel, shelter, medicines and other resources which are vital for our survival. Most of the crops pests are controlled by a variety of other organisms, including insects, birds and fungi; which are certainly superior natural pesticides than their chemical equivalents. The pesticides which are extensively used are really harmful to human beings and the environment.
Many flowering plants rely on animal species such as insects, bats and birds for pollination and seed dispersal. Biodiversity, more importantly, offers a wide range of resources and services for any location at any specific time and thus providing people with a variety of option to make it possible to switch over from one resource to another and prefer another if something is scarce, or if market demand chages.
Access to diverse species enables diversification of livelihood through, planting multiple crops and thus enabling food production throughout the year, or engaging in alternative income-generating activities. The availability of diverse resources also allows different genders, cultural or age groups to engage in and benefit from the resources.